Germany should enable a better access of highly qualified mothers to its labour market – Some Statistics
Might this all be just a sign of a beginning paranoia of an exhausted Mum fighting to finish her PhD and to find an open-minded employer? Let’s set aside emotions just for now and turn to hard facts (because apart from being a Mum I am also a researcher), for example, to the brochure Women and Men in the Labour Market: Germany and Europe published by the German Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt) in 2012.
Already in the introduction, the German Statistical Office points out that low participation of women in the labour market leads to a loss of highly qualified employees. Moreover, the statistical office underlines that although there are families that do not follow the tradition pattern, they are still very rare. It is still a rule that women withdraw from the professional life if they have to take care of the family members (like children), while men occupy more important positions and earn a bigger salary. The last idea is supported by Figure 1 – Germany is below the EU-27 average as measured by the share of women in the leading positions in 2010. In the TOP-5, three places are occupied by tree Eastern European countries that must have a well developed childcare system as a legacy from their past in the socialist block.
The European Commission in its recent brochure Tackling the gender pay gap in the European Union also stresses that “greater equality between men and women would bring benefits to the economy and to society in general” and that “employers can benefit from using women’s talents and skills more effectively, for example by valuing women’s skills and through introducing policies on work-life balance, training and career development”.
Unfortunately for women working (or looking for a job) in Germany, Germany belongs to the TOP-3 EU countries with the highest gender pay gap (Figure 2) surpassed only by Austria and Estonia! At 22.4 per cent, gender pay gap in Germany is 7 percentage points above the EU-28 average. These differences arise not only from women earning less for the same work, but also from women working shorter hours and in positions with less responsibility as they “bear the burden of unpaid work and childcare”.
These statistics again imply that EU-countries from the former socialist block (e.g. Poland, Latvia, Lithuania) tend to have lower-than-EU-28-average gender pay gap due to women participating more actively in the economic life.
There are also other interesting statistics on the gender equality in the EU, for example “Women and men in leadership positions in the European Union, 2013” by the European Commission. The overall conclusion is that there is still a long way to the real gender balance, Germany included. Legislation such as the quota law approved by the German parliament on 6 March 2015 requiring major companies to allot 30 percent of seats on non-executive boards to women, is a welcome change. As Reuters puts it, “although Germany has been led by a woman, Angela Merkel, since 2005, there is not a single female chief executive among the 30 largest firms on Germany’s blue-chip DAX index”. “A survey published in the Handelsblatt newspaper on Friday said 59 percent of mid-size companies in Germany did not have a single woman in a leadership position, compared to the European Union average of 36 percent”.
So yes, congratulations, well done! But it is yet too early to celebrate at this point because for women to get to the board, they should first be hired by the company and be able to work there more than half-time, which is still hard, because kindergartens are open only until 16:30 and only 60 per cent of children in the primary school in Düsseldorf can stay at school in the afternoon (but in any case not later than 16:30). Taken into consideration that normal office working hours are 9:00 till 17:00 and in many cases, especially in high positions, one is expected to work even later, these conditions cannot be seen as encouraging for women who wish to combine family and career.
As the primary goal of my previous posts devoted to conditions for working mothers in Germany was to attract more public awareness to this problem and to share experience with other well educated mothers worldwide, I was very glad to receive the following comment from one of my German friends who lives in Berlin:
Well done, girl! Thanks a lot!!! Same experiences here: double degree, lots of skills and competences, years and years of working experience etc. but somehow there is just no fitting job available (and I am surrounded by supportive grandparents and extremely good covered child care) … still! I seem to have the wrong age, the wrong sex and well, only one child. What if there might be a second. dear god, nobody could possibly take that risk… very frustrating!
I am mother with two small children and two university degrees who is currently finishing her PhD in economics. I have been actively applying for qualified jobs for almost a year now – without any success. I am living in Germany – one of the most economically developed countries in the world. And one which you can hardly accuse of (too high) gender inequality.
Born in the Soviet Union, I have been learning as long as I can remember – first at school and then later at the university. Although there was of course no perfect gender equality, women were regarded as important contributors to creating „a better future“ and attaining the economic goals, and girls were given the same scientific education in public schools as boys. It is true that men pursued more often a career of an engineer, while women would prefer to become teachers, but the whole childcare system was and is still adopted to working women. I remember going to a kindergarten and being picked up at 6 p.m. by my Dad as any other Soviet child. After the fall of the Soviet Union, we in Belarus were lucky to have kept the excellent primary and secondary education, as well as higher education that attracted both girls as boys.
Thanks to my well educated parents (my mother holds a university degree in informatics and worked as a programmer for many years while my father obtained his degree in computer engineering) who always encouraged my education, I continued to study eagerly at one of the best technical universities of the country and of course never could even imagine that I was doing it all for nothing. No, I was sure that I was as good as boys (actually I was one of the best in my class at secondary school and university) and that I would still be able to have a family and children while at the same time pursuing a meaningful career. During my third year at the Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics I came to Wuppertal, Germany for an exchange semester and was immediately fascinated by the level of democracy that reigned here (contrary to Belarus, there were no ideological slogans in the streets), by the multicultural society and by unlimited opportunities. After finishing my studies in Minsk and graduating in Economics with honours (with a strong technical background), I was awarded a scholarship to continue my Master studies in Germany. So this is how I came back to Wuppertal in 2006 and graduated in Economics (with a focus on ICT and international economics) two years later. Then I decided to continue with a PhD devoted to the analysis of the international mobile communications market while at the same time working as a research assistant at one of the Fraunhofer Institutes, where we developed internationalisation strategies for SMEs from our region based on detailed market analysis. I was mainly responsible for Russian speaking markets with occasional projects in English and French (yes, I speak Russian, German, English and French fluently).